In the section Articles
Title of the article Local Factors and COVID-19 Severity: Typological Analysis of Urban Districts in Russia
Pages 93-120
Author 1 Ruslan Vyacheslavovich Goncharov
Candidate of Sciences (Geographical), Associate Professor
Faculty of Urban and Regional Development, HSE University,
20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000, Russian Federation
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORCID: 0000-0002-8677-5354
Author 2 Egor Andreevich Kotov
Research Fellow
Faculty of Urban and Regional Development, HSE University,
20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000, Russian Federation
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORCID: 0000-0001-6690-5345
Author 3 Varvara Aleksandrovna Molodtsova
Junior Research Fellow
Faculty of Urban and Regional Development, HSE University,
20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000, Russian Federation
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORCID: 0000-0001-8226-4824
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that the lack of consideration of the local specifics of territories, such as the specifics of socio-economic interactions, labor market characteristics, leads to serious social or economic consequences when developing response measures to epidemiological threats. The creation of a typology of territories (urban districts / okrugs) makes it possible to more accurately select measures to regulate socio-economic interactions in the event of future complications of the epidemiological situation. Clustering of municipalities according to a set of local factors that significantly explain the severity of the pandemic in the first year made it possible to identify three types of urban districts that differ in population size and intensity of socio-economic interactions (SEI): these are key service centers with a high intensity of SEI, local centers with medium SEI intensity, small towns with low SEI intensity
Code 330.4+332.1
JEL R12, R19, C18
Keywords COVID-19 pandemic, typology of urban districts, socio-economic interactions, pandemic severity, excess mortality factors, Russia
Download SE.2023.1.093-120.Goncharov
For citation Goncharov R.V., Kotov E.A., MolodtsovaV.A. Local Factors and COVID-19 Severity: Typological Analysis of Urban Districts in Russia. Prostranstvennaya Ekonomika = Spatial Economics, 2023, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 93–120. (In Russian)
References 1. Akinwumiju A.S., Oluwafemi O., Mohammed Y.D., Mobolaji J.W. Geospatial Evaluation of COVID-19 Mortality: Influence of Socio-Economic Status and Underlying Health Conditions in Contiguous USA. Applied Geography, 2022, vol. 141. 102671.
2. Andersen L.M., Harden S.R., Sugg M.M., Runkle J.D., Lundquist T.E. Analyzing the Spatial Determinants of Local COVID-19 Transmission in the United States. Science of the Total Environment, 2021, vol. 754. 142396.
3. Ascani A., Faggian A., Montresor S. The Geography of COVID-19 and the Structure of Local Economies: The Case of Italy. Journal of Regional Science, 2021, vol. 61, issue 2, pp. 407–441.
4. Banski J., Mazur M., Kaminska W. Socioeconomic Conditioning of the Development of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Global Spatial Differentiation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021, vol. 18, no. 9. 4802.
5. Chakraborti S., Maiti A., Pramanik S., Sannigrahi S., Pilla F., Banerjee A., Nath Das D. Evaluating the Plausible Application of Advanced Machine Learnings in Exploring Determinant Factors of Present Pandemic: A Case for Continent Specific COVID-19 Analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 2021, vol. 765. 142723.
6. Ehlert A. The Socio-Economic Determinants of COVID-19: A Spatial Analysis of German County Level Data. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 2021, vol. 78. 101083.
7. Franch-Pardo I., Napoletano B.M., Rosete-Verges F., Billa L. Spatial Analysis and GIS in the Study of COVID-19. A Review. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, vol. 739. 140033.
8. Henning A., McLaughlin C., Armen S., Allen S. Socio-Spatial Influences on the Prevalence of COVID-19 in Central Pennsylvania. Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology, 2021, vol. 37. 100411.
9. Holmager T.L., Lynge E., Kann C.E., St-Martin G. Geography of COVID-19 in Denmark. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2020, vol. 49, issue 1, pp. 88–95.
10. Islam N., Jdanov D.A., Shkolnikov V.M., Khunti K., Kawachi I., White M., Lewington S., Lacey B. Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Life Expectancy and Premature Mortality in 2020: Time Series Analysis in 37 Countries. BMJ, 2021, vol. 375. e066768.
11. Konstantinoudis G., Padellini T., Bennett J., Davies B., Ezzati M., Blangiardo M. Long-Term Exposure to Air-Pollution and COVID-19 Mortality in England: A Hierarchical Spatial Analysis. Environment International, 2021, vol. 146. 106316.
12. Kotov E., Goncharov R., Kulchitsky Y., Molodtsova V., Nikitin B. Spatial Modelling of Key Regional-Level Factors of COVID-19 Mortality in Russia. Geography, Environment, Sustainability, 2022, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 71–83.
13. Luo Y., Yan J., McClure S. Distribution of the Environmental and Socioeconomic Risk Factors on COVID-19 Death Rate Across Continental USA: A Spatial Nonlinear Analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2021, vol. 28, pp. 6587–6599.
14. Maiti A., Zhang Q., Sannigrahi S., Pramanik S., Chakraborti S., Cerda A., Pilla F. Exploring Spatiotemporal Effects of the Driving Factors on COVID-19 Incidences in the Conti-guous United States. Sustainable Cities and Society, 2021, vol. 68. 102784.
15. Makarova M.N., Pyshmintseva О.А. Excess Mortality in Russian Regions during the COVID-19 Pandemic. R-Economy, 2021, vol. 7, issue 4, pp. 225–234.
16. Martines M.R., Ferreira R.V., Toppa R.H., Assuncao L.M., Desjardins M.R., Delmelle E.M. Detecting Space-Time Clusters of COVID-19 in Brazil: Mortality, Inequality, Socioeconomic Vulnerability, and the Relative Risk of the Disease in Brazilian Municipalities. Journal of Geographical Systems, 2021, vol. 23, issue 1, pp. 7–36.
17. Mollalo A., Vahedi B., Rivera K.M. GIS-Based Spatial Modeling of COVID-19 Incidence Rate in the Continental United States. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, vol. 728. 138884.
18. Perone G. The Determinants of COVID-19 Case Fatality Rate (CFR) in the Italian Regions and Provinces: An Analysis of Environmental, Demographic, and Healthcare Factors. Science of the Total Environment, 2021, vol. 755. 142523.
19. Petrov A.N., Welford M., Golosov N., DeGroote J., Degai T., Savelyev A. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Arctic: Early Data and Emerging Trends. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 2020, vol. 79, issue 1. 1835251.
20. Qi H., Xiao S., Shi R., Ward M.P., Chen Y., Tu W., Su Q., Wang W., Wang X., Zhang Z. COVID-19 Transmission in Mainland China is Associated with Temperature and Humidity: A Time-Series Analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, vol. 728. 138778.
21. Raymundo C.E., Oliveira M.C., de Araujo Eleuterio T., Andre S.R., da Silva M.G., da Silva Queiroz E.R., de Andrade Medronho R. Spatial Analysis of COVID-19 Incidence and the Sociodemographic Context in Brazil. PLoS One, 2021, vol. 16, issue. 3. e0247794.
22. Rodriguez-Pose A., Burlina C. Institutions and the Uneven Geography of the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Regional Science, 2020, vol. 61, issue 4, pp. 728–752.
23. Russian Regions in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Fluctuat Nec Mergitur. Edited A.N. Pilyasov. Moscow; Smolensk, 2022, 432 p. (In Russian).
24. Scarpone C., Brinkmann S.T., Gro?e T., Sonnenwald D., Fuchs M., Walker B.B. A Multimethod Approach for County-Scale Geospatial Analysis of Emerging Infec-tious Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Case Study of COVID-19 Incidence in Germany. International Journal of Health Geographics, 2020, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 1–17.
25. Souris M., Gonzalez J.P. COVID-19: Spatial Analysis of Hospital Case-Fatality Rate in France. PLoS One, 2020, vol. 15, issue12. e0243606.
26. Sun F., Matthews S.A., Yang T.-C., Hu M.-H. A Spatial Analysis of the COVID-19 Period Prevalence in US Counties Through June 28, 2020: Where Geography Matters? Annals of Epidemiology, 2020, vol. 52, pp. 54–59.
27. World Health Organization. Global Excess Deaths Associated with COVID-19 (Modelled Estimates), 2022. Available at: (accessed December 2022).
28. Yarmol-Matusiak E.A., Cipriano L.E., Stranges S. A Comparison of COVID-19 Epidemiological Indicators in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2021, vol. 49, issue 1, pp. 69–78.
29. Zamyatina N.Yu., Nikitin B.V. Development of a Typology of Russian Cities for Master Planning. Workbooks, vol. 3. Institute of Regional Consulting. Ekaterinburg, 2021,100 p. (In Russian).
30. Zemtsov S.P., Baburin V.L. Risks of Morbidity and Mortality during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Russian Regions. Population and Economics, 2020, vol. 4, issue 2,pp. 158–181.
Financing The article was prepared with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Grant / Award Numbers: Project No. 20-04-60490 ‘Development of territorially differentiated methods for regulating socio-economic interactions, sectoral structure and local labor markets in order to ensure balanced regional development in a difficult epidemiological situation’
Submitted 15.07.2022
Approved after reviewing 15.03.2023
Accepted for publication 16.03.2023
Available online 31.03.2023

ISSN (Print) 1815-9834
ISSN (Online) 2587-5957

Minakir Pavel Aleksandrovich,
Tel.: +7 (4212) 725-225,
Fax: +7 (4212) 225-916,
Samokhina Lyudmila, Executive Editor
Tel.: +7 (4212) 226-053
Fax: +7 (4212) 225-916,
Tel.: +7 (4212) 226-053,
Fax: +7 (4212) 225-916,
To Editorial Staff of “Spatial Economics”
Economic Research Institute FEB RAS
153 Tikhookeanskaya St., Khabarovsk, RUSSIA, 680042



Creative Commons License
Unless otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License